- More reading suggestions for vet group under "presentation readings"
- Make-up quizzes--We've had one, but we need a few more for a few people.
- New solution-- there will be make-up quiz questions on the final just for those people.
- They will be exactly like regular quizzes--they will ask one of the reading questions about one of the readings (assigned after March 9).
- Prior to the final, I will let you know by email how many you are entitled to answer.
- Today, the background facts
- Tuesday, the arguments pro and con
- biomedical research--using animals to learn about human body, diseases, treatments
- drug, household product, and cosmetics testing--using animals to determine safety for the benefit of humans
- psychology research--doing research on animals to learn about human psychology
- veterinary research--doing research on animals to benefit animals
- animal psychology research--doing research on animals to learn about animal minds....but to satisfy human desire for knowledge
The Animal Welfare Act
- regulates research on some species in most labs (more on AWA below)
- AWA-covered animals used in animal labs in 2001: 1.25 million
- rats and mice (not AWA-covered) used in animal labs in 2001: 80 million
- animals used for product and drug testing per year: 10-20 million
- animals killed for food every year in the US: 10 billion
- Psychology research (#3) -- Harry Harlow - video (Kazez pp. 193-197) Variations on a theme (p. 143). Well of despair studies (p. 194).
- Biomedical research (#1) -- Research Facility Tour (PETA undercover video)
Animal research - positive (?) examples
- Jonas Salk and polio vaccine research (Kazez 188-193)
- 57,000 cases of polio in 1952; 3,000 died; 21,000 left with some paralysis; 100,000 monkeys killed in research; no benefit for monkeys; for typing study, they were infected by drilling hole in head; after vaccine developed, tested on monkeys; after monkeys, disabled kids in "homes".
- Modern Research Facility Tour
- SMU's animal research--I toured 2 years ago and discussed with Shannon Lund, SMU's compliance officer
- FDA requires animal testing of drugs
- household products and cosmetics are tested on animals at the discretion of companies
- Draize test
- LD50--each batch of botox tested to determine how much it takes to kill half of the test animals
- European legislation (1986)--must search for alternatives to animal testing
- US legislation (2016)--must search for alternatives to animal testing
ANIMAL WELFARE ACT
Primary US laws that protect animals
- state animal cruelty laws (labs are exempt, animal farming is exempt)
- Humane Slaughter Act--applies to slaughter of large mammals
- Animal Welfare Act
- applies to research animals, not not all species, and not federal labs
- applies to circuses, zoos, aquaria, but not rodeos
- applies to transport of farm animals, but not farms
- applies to large breeders, but not to retail outlets or animal shelters
1966 -Sports Illustrated and Life Magazine articles lead to AWA
- main point of AWA is to prevent lost pets being used in animal labs
- requires adequate food and housing
- Anesthetics have to be used during surgery; analgesics have to be offered for pain relief.
- More venues covered (circuses and zoos, but not pet stores, pet shows, and rodeos)
- Provisions for institutional animal care committees (IACUCs)
- dogs must have exercise, primates must have psychological enrichment
Silver Spring Maryland - Dr Edward Taub severs nerves to arms to study nervous system healing - PETA co-founder Alex Pacheco takes undercover position and films - testifies in 1981 congressional hearings
University of Pennsylania - Head injury lab - baboons had their heads crushed in crash simulator - 64 hours of film obtained during raid by Animal Liberation Front - PETA produces film
2002, 2007, 2008 - more amendments
- "animal" explicitly defined so that rats, mice, birds, and reptiles are not covered
- prohibition on animal fighting
Today's Animal Welfare Act
Questions about IACUCs (institutional animal care and use committees)
- Are they really ethics committees? (see John Young in research facility video)
- How do they compare to human subject review committees?
- How are animals protected, compared to children?
- Do IACUCs judge balance between animal costs and human benefits?
- Do IACUCs ever veto experiments on ethical grounds?