Engel article, annotated
The "no extrapolation" argument against animal research
(1) It's wrong to perform animal experiments that are harmful or painful or lethal for no good reason.
(2) Animal experiments that are harmful, painful, or lethal are always performed for no good reason (they provide no valuable information).
(3) It is wrong to perform these animal experiments.
What animal experiments does Engel discuss? He says "biomedical research" but he only talks about drug testing.
His argument that animal experiments (involved in drug testing) provide no valuable information: