Thursday, March 2, 2017

Donaldson & Kymlicka: Categories

ANNOUNCEMENTS

  • midterm advice is above
  • office hours tomorrow 2-5 (Hyer 210)
  • restaurants receipts should be uploaded to Canvas (by 3/21)
MORAL STATUS OF ANIMALS
  1. Singer
  2. Regan
  3. Carruthers
  4. Gruen
  5. Donaldson & Kymlicka, Zoopolis

NEGATIVE RIGHTS, POSITIVE RIGHTS
  • right to life, liberty--require us to refrain from certain things--so these are negative rights
  • Regan says all animals (that are SOALs) have negative rights; D&K agree
  • positive rights require us to actively provide certain things for rights holders
  • Regan doesn't talk about positive rights
  • D&K say animals have positive rights too, but which rights they have depends on the political category they fall into
THREE POLITICAL CATEGORIES (HUMANS) 

  1. Citizens--(a) Have secure right of residence in a particular nation; (b) have access to public spaces; (c) are those for whose sake the state governs; (d) are those who participate in political process
  2. Denizens (or "liminal denizens")--People visiting as tourists, workers, foreign students, refugees.  (liminal = "occupying a position at, or on both sides of, a boundary or threshold"; denizen--"one that frequents a place"). Same basic negative rights as citizens, but weaker positive rights.  
  3. Foreigners (in other countries)--Same basic negative rights as citizens and denizens, but even weaker positive rights relative to us.  We have to do less for them.
THREE POLITICAL CATEGORIES (ANIMALS)
  1. Animal citizens--Pets and other domesticated animals (cows, pigs, chickens, horses, etc.)--citizens because we've made them dependent on us and they have no other form of existence.  Plus they're capable of a peaceful, cooperative relationship with us.
  2. Animal denizens--Squirrels, rats, birds, raccoons, ducks, etc.--animals on the periphery of human communities.
  3. Animal foreigners--Wild animals, completely independent.
ALL ANIMALS, REGARDLESS OF CATEGORY
  • same basic negative rights--right to life and liberty
  • therefore no hunting, no killing for food, no harmful research and testing
  • a world very different from ours!
    1. ANIMAL CITIZENS
    • a new idea, not in Regan, Singer, or Gruen
    • they have a right to be in public spaces (Paris vs. Dallas)

    • pets should be socialized
    • should have access to medical care 
    • animal citizens should contribute to society, but no exploitation
    • non-exploitative:  contribute manure, sheep grazing a field, backyard chickens for eggs, sheep for wool if shorn humanely  (other rights authors: must be exploitative because they can't consent)
    • exploitative:  most farming and research; using animals as guide dogs and other assistance animals


      2. ANIMAL FOREIGNERS
      3. ANIMAL LIMINAL DENIZENS
      • They are drawn to human communities but don't have to be "let in" as citizens
      • Still have basic negative rights

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