Tuesday, March 28, 2017

Humane Farming

Before we state the Humane Farming Defense, we need more background.  How humane is humane?

I. Standard factory farming
II. Factory farming with reforms
III. More humane farming
IV. Nearly ideal humane farming
V. Plant farming

I. STANDARD FACTORY FARMING 

Caged Laying Hens

Gestation crates (Humane Society)
Farrowing Crate

II.  FACTORY FARMING WITH REFORMS



III.  MORE HUMANE FARMING

Whole Foods' 5 Step System




IV.  NEARLY IDEAL HUMANE FARMING (5+)

  

http://seattletimes.nwsource.com/ABPub/2010/09/30/2013042544.jpg
Free range, not just cage free


http://www.thegrazingmind.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/10/PIG3.png



V. PLANT FARMING




Pollan and Davis

powerpoint

Extra Credit Involvement

Attend talk on March 30 (see below)--5 extra credit involvement points--upload one page of notes or turn in by April 4

Attend a Rodeo by April 4--5 extra credit involvement points--upload recent receipt or turn in on April 4

Go to Zoo or Aquarium by April 18--5 extra credit involvement points--upload recent receipt or turn in on April 18


Tuesday, March 21, 2017

The argument for veganism: Norcross

Norcross Powerpoint

Norcross article

Animals As Food

Announcements

  • April 4, hunting and rodeo presentations
  • March 28--your blog post and proof of visit is due

AGENDA

Is it ethical to use animals as food?
  1. No, we should be vegans--(a) authors we've already studied (who?), (b) Norcross
  2. Yes, it can be ethical--(a) authors we've already studied (who?), (b) 4 defenses (Frey, George, Davis, Pollan)
  3. It would be more ethical after genetic engineering (Shriver)
Fact Gathering First  
  1. Impact--on animals, on environment 
  2. Nutrition--can a vegan diet be healthy?
  3. Taste--does a vegan diet taste good?
IMPACT--on animals, on environment
    Numbers (source)
    • About 10 billion land animals die annually in food production in the US
    • 218 million are killed by hunters, in animal shelters, research, product testing, dissection, and fur farms (2% of total killed)
    Types of Animal Farming (discuss #1 and #2 today, 3-5 later on)
    1. Factory farming (vast majority of US farming)
    2. Reformed factory farming 
    3. Boutique humane farming
    4. Perfectly painless farming
    5. Plant farming (animals still killed, but accidentally)
    The Big Picture
    The Meatrix (about history of factory farming) (we'll watch)
    Food Inc
    Glass Walls (PETA video)

    Broiler Chickens (for meat)

    Treatment: debeaking, very short lives, crowding (20,000 per barn),  ammonia fumes, collapsing under own weight (see Food Inc.)



    Laying hens (for eggs)



    What happens to the males?

    Looking down into a dumpster - discarded male chicks
    Treatment: crowding (each chicken has less space than a piece of typing paper), debeaking

    Farm Sanctuary


    Slaughter of chickens: thrown on trucks, long trip, no water, shackled upside down, dragged through electrified water, throats slit, more about slaughter


    Pigs

    Treatment: crowding, tail-docking, sow crates




    An industry video about phasing out of sow crates: http://www.smithfieldfoods.com/responsible-operations/animal-care (scroll down)

    Beef Cattle


    Treatment: castration, branding, range life until 8 months, feedlot for several months; corn diet, antibiotics, hormones
    More info:  Power Steer




    Dairy Cows

    Treatment: separation from calves, over-milking, mastitis, BST
    What happens to the males? (read about sexed semen)
    Good account of modern dairy farm here 



    Veal Calves


    Veal facts (old method)


    Industry changes in last 10 years

    Slaughter of pigs, cattle
    Transported on hot, crowded trucks
    Animals shot in head with stun gun, lose consciousness (ideally)
    Hoisted upside-down, throats slit
    Animals killed at a rate of 400 per hour
    Temple Grandin reforms: more auditing, curved chute

    "Seafood"
    some issues:  seine fishingbycatch, how fish die, dwindling stocks, endangered species
     Environmental impact
    Is Meat Green? 
    Rethinking the Meat Guzzler
    Livestock's Long Shadow 
    NUTRITION: can a vegan diet be healthy?

    Diets
    1. Indifferent omnivore (eat anything tasty)
    2. Compassionate omnivore (consider the source--humane standards)
    3. Vegetarian/Compassionate (no meat, consider the source of eggs, dairy)
    4. Vegan (100% plant-based)
    Are vegetarian and vegan diets healthy?
    Expert statements on vegetarian and vegan diets
    B-12 supplementation      Vegan athletes 
    TASTE: does a vegan diet taste good?
    Did you enjoy your vegan meal?

    Thursday, March 2, 2017

    Donaldson & Kymlicka: Categories

    ANNOUNCEMENTS

    • midterm advice is above
    • office hours tomorrow 2-5 (Hyer 210)
    • restaurants receipts should be uploaded to Canvas (by 3/21)
    MORAL STATUS OF ANIMALS
    1. Singer
    2. Regan
    3. Carruthers
    4. Gruen
    5. Donaldson & Kymlicka, Zoopolis

    NEGATIVE RIGHTS, POSITIVE RIGHTS
    • right to life, liberty--require us to refrain from certain things--so these are negative rights
    • Regan says all animals (that are SOALs) have negative rights; D&K agree
    • positive rights require us to actively provide certain things for rights holders
    • Regan doesn't talk about positive rights
    • D&K say animals have positive rights too, but which rights they have depends on the political category they fall into
    THREE POLITICAL CATEGORIES (HUMANS) 

    1. Citizens--(a) Have secure right of residence in a particular nation; (b) have access to public spaces; (c) are those for whose sake the state governs; (d) are those who participate in political process
    2. Denizens (or "liminal denizens")--People visiting as tourists, workers, foreign students, refugees.  (liminal = "occupying a position at, or on both sides of, a boundary or threshold"; denizen--"one that frequents a place"). Same basic negative rights as citizens, but weaker positive rights.  
    3. Foreigners (in other countries)--Same basic negative rights as citizens and denizens, but even weaker positive rights relative to us.  We have to do less for them.
    THREE POLITICAL CATEGORIES (ANIMALS)
    1. Animal citizens--Pets and other domesticated animals (cows, pigs, chickens, horses, etc.)--citizens because we've made them dependent on us and they have no other form of existence.  Plus they're capable of a peaceful, cooperative relationship with us.
    2. Animal denizens--Squirrels, rats, birds, raccoons, ducks, etc.--animals on the periphery of human communities.
    3. Animal foreigners--Wild animals, completely independent.
    ALL ANIMALS, REGARDLESS OF CATEGORY
    • same basic negative rights--right to life and liberty
    • therefore no hunting, no killing for food, no harmful research and testing
    • a world very different from ours!
      1. ANIMAL CITIZENS
      • a new idea, not in Regan, Singer, or Gruen
      • they have a right to be in public spaces (Paris vs. Dallas)

      • pets should be socialized
      • should have access to medical care 
      • animal citizens should contribute to society, but no exploitation
      • non-exploitative:  contribute manure, sheep grazing a field, backyard chickens for eggs, sheep for wool if shorn humanely  (other rights authors: must be exploitative because they can't consent)
      • exploitative:  most farming and research; using animals as guide dogs and other assistance animals


        2. ANIMAL FOREIGNERS
        3. ANIMAL LIMINAL DENIZENS
        • They are drawn to human communities but don't have to be "let in" as citizens
        • Still have basic negative rights

        Gruen: Entangled Empathy

        Announcements

        • Midterm advice is at tab above.  Midterm is on 3/9.  I will answer questions about the midterm next time (if you have any).  I will also have extra office hours on Wednesday 3/8, 2-5.
        • Speciesism: The Movie is showing on Monday 3/6 at 6 pm in the Hughes Trigg Forum.  You can receive 5 points for going and turning in a page of notes on 3/7.  The students who came and talked about it said there would be food.
        • Next time (3/7):  Professor Amy Freund will come and talk about the moral status of animals as depicted in art.  Art is another "way of knowing."  This will be interesting!

        A little more on Carruthers

        • Imagine you are sitting around the table, hammering out the rules for a future society.  You're purely self-interested, seeking peace and security, and reluctant to give up too much freedom.  You're behind "the veil of ignorance," so don't know who you'll be in the future society--male or female, black or white, gay or straight, animal-lover or animal-farmer, etc.  
        • Carruthers says you will grant rights to all humans, both rational agents (like the people around the table) and others (babies, "senile" old people).  
        • He says you will grant no rights to any animals.
        • What do you think?  Will you accord any degree of moral standing to any animals? If you say NO you agree with Carruthers.  If you say YES, then (a) what degree of moral standing, and (b) which animals will have it? 

        The Big Picture
        1. Peter Singer, 1975, Animalist, Utilitarian
        2. Tom Regan, 1984,  Animalist, Rights View (family quarrel with Singer)
        3. Peter Carruthers, 2011, Anti-Animalist (against Regan)
        4. Lori Gruen, 2015, Animalist (family quarrel with Singer and Regan)
        5. Donaldson & Kymlicka, 2016, Animalist (adding to Regan)
        Lori Gruen -- Gruen, annotated
        1. Standard approaches to ethics: (Singer, Regan, McMahan, etc.)
        2. What's wrong with these approaches: (a) too abstract, (b) realities ignored, (c) alienating, robotic, (d) no focus on context and institutions, (e) hero-victim duality
        3. Standard approaches to animal ethics: the faults above, plus (f) too much focus on human-animal similarities, not enough on human-animal differences
        4. The right approach:  entangled empathy and care ethics
        5. What is entangled empathy? (from chap. 2); also, video
        • empathy vs. sympathy: empathy makes you "feel with" whereas sympathy makes you feel separate and above
        • empathy vs. contagion: empathy is cognitive and controlled, contagion is automatic
        • empathy vs. projection: empathy involves understanding what the other feels, projection involves imagining how you would feel in the same situation 
        • entangled empathy:  you are involved, you can be affected and changed 

        Thursday, February 23, 2017

        Tom Regan: The Rights View

        Announcements

        • We will have a quick presentation meeting today
        • Get into presentation groups and please stay in them!

        Tuesday, February 21, 2017

        Peter Singer:Utilitarianism

        Announcements:
        1. Presentation readings--see tab
        2. Vegan restaurants--see tab
        3. Speciesism, The Movie--see below; can receive 5 points "involvement" extra credit; turn in a page of notes on Monday March 6.
        4. Voice of Animals--SMU club.  





        March 6th at 6:00pm in the Hughes Trigg Forum. 

        Powerpoints for today:

        Thursday, February 9, 2017

        Animal Morality/Animals as Food

        QUIZ?

        NEXT TIME

        • We'll start using the reader that's at Canvas.
        • Our last animal minds topic is pain and fear.  


        ANIMAL MORALITY?
        powerpoint


        TALK MONDAY



        • Turn in a page of notes on 2/14 for 10 extra-credit "involvement" points
        • Professor Thompson may be visiting our class on Feb 14.


        Tuesday, February 7, 2017

        Time Travel

        TALK NEXT WEEK
        • Turn in a page of notes for 10 extra-credit "involvement" points
        • We will talk a bit about farm animals next time so you're ready for this talk.  We will also cover the material on the syllabus.
        • Professor Thompson may be visiting our class on Feb 14.



        PRESENTATION GROUPS

        • exchange email addresses
        • discuss what you want issues you want to focus on
        • turn that in, so I can help you develop a bibliography
        QUIZ(?)

        ANIMAL MINDS SCORE SHEET

        CLIPS
        1. Self-awareness and the mirror test (Animal Minds 1:24:40 -1:27:38)
        2. Insight-chimps (Animal Minds 17:20 - 19:58).  
        3. Insight-crows (Animal Minds 20:00 - 24:38).  
        4. Insight-chimps (clip below).



        TIME TRAVEL
        1. Term used metaphorically, not literally!
        2. Backward time travel - past
        3. Forward time travel - future
        BACKWARD TIME TRAVEL
        1. The capacity is not simply having a present shaped by past (e.g. trained dog)
        2. The capacity is not simply storage in memory (e.g. Clark's nutcracker - Animal Minds 14:00 - 16:35)
        3. The capacity is "episodic memory" - recalling a specific sequence of events (what, when, where).
        EVIDENCE OF EPISODIC MEMORY IN ANIMALS
        1. p. 210:  chimps get up earlier to travel to a fig tree when it's further away
        2. p. 211:  Nicola Clayton's study of western scrub jays.  
        FORWARD TIME TRAVEL
        1. The capacity is not simply doing something that culminates in a future event (e.g. migration, building a nest, etc.)
        2. The capacity is foreseeing/thinking about future events
        EVIDENCE OF FORESIGHT IN ANIMALS
        1. Endel Tulving's criteria - p. 213
        2. The spoon test.
        3. Santino's rock piles.
        4. Evidence of foresight plus self-control (willpower) - collecting food for offspring and not eating it.
        CONSCIOUSNESS
        • Do self-awareness, intelligence, and time travel prove consciousness?
        • DeWaal isn't sure - but says he's increasingly inclined to think they point in that direction.  Why?  (see p. 234)

        Tuesday, January 31, 2017

        Intelligence

        Class was cancelled today.  We will discuss intelligence on 2/2 or possibly later.

        Thursday, January 26, 2017

        How can we know?

        PRESENTATION TOPICS
        What are your top three choices?
        • Rodeos
        • Dallas Zoo
        • Dallas World Aquarium
        • Exotic pet stores/pet stores
        • Dog breeding
        • Animal shelters 
        • Horse racing
        • Veterinary practices--declawing, tail and ear docking
        • Hunting (what's the local aspect?)
        • Other
        PRACTICE QUIZ

        *******************************************

        FRANS DE WAAL

        Our guide to animal minds.  Who he is.
         HOW MUCH CAN WE KNOW ABOUT AN ANIMAL'S UMWELT?
        • Umwelt – "an organism's self-centered, subjective world" (pg. 8) 
        • vs. ecological niche – "the habitat the organism needs for survival" (pg. 8)
        • Thomas Nagel: "What is it like to be a bat?" (famous article/question)
          • Nagel's point – the mind is beyond the reach of objective science.
          • Only the bat knows, we can't know.  True?




        • Is it really impossible to know what it's like to be a bat?




        • Does this boy know better than most? Could we learn?


        DE WAAL: HOW TO BE SMART ENOUGH TO KNOW HOW SMART ANIMALS ARE: 10 DOS AND DON'TS


        1. DON'T ACCEPT SCALA NATURAE (LADDER OF NATURE) (p. 12)




        • On the ladder model, all creatures have the same abilities, but to different degrees.


        Mark Dion, Scala Naturae (1994)

        2. DON'T BELIEVE HUMANS UNIQUE AND SUPERIOR
        • Humans not on a pedestal, totally different from all other animals.




        3. DO THINK IN EVOLUTIONARY TERMS
        • We should expect greater similarities between species the more recently they share a common ancestor
          • Humans and chimpanzees: common ancestor 6 million years ago
          • Humans and orangutans: common ancestor 14 million years ago
          • Humans and cats: common ancestor 75 million years ago
          • Humans and chickens: common ancestor 100 million years ago
          • Humans and sharks: common ancestor 400 million years ago
          • Humans and octopuses: common ancestor 550 million years ago
          • Humans and grasshoppers: common ancestor 575 million years ago
          • All numbers from The Ancestor's Tale, by Richard Dawkins.
        • We should expect differences too, because different species have adapted to different environments

        4. DON'T INDULGE IN EXCESSIVE ANTHROPOMORPHISM OR ANTHROPODENIAL
        • Anthropomorphism is...(p. 24 and glossary)
        • Anthropodenial is ..... (p. 22 and glossary)

        5. DO ACCEPT "CRITICAL" ANTHROPOMORPHISM (p. 26)
        6. DON'T RELY ENTIRELY ON ANECDOTES


        • Impressive one-off case or story.

        7. DO RELY ON APPROPRIATE, WELL-DESIGNED EXPERIMENTS

        8. DON'T OBEY MORGAN'S CANON
        • Lloyd Morgan, a British psychologist (1894): "In no case may we interpret an action as the outcome of the exercise of a higher psychical faculty, if it can be interpreted as the outcome of the exercise of one which stands lower on the psychological scale." (pg. 42)
          • Trial-and-error vs. insight (higher)
          • Instinct vs. intelligence (higher)
        9. DO DEVISE EXPERIMENTS THAT ARE SPECIES-APPROPRIATE
        • Banana test for intelligence (chimpanzees vs. elephants)--Inside the Animal Mind, Prog. I, ch. 3 (Insight)
        • Mirror test for self-awareness (next time)
        10. DON'T FOCUS ON THE PROBLEM OF CONSCIOUSNESS
        • He says he doesn't focus, but wouldn't deny for any species. (read pg. 23)
        *******************************************


        OUR AGENDA
        Aspects of mind that might be morally important.
        1. Consciousness
        2. Intelligence
        3. Self-awareness
        4. Trapped in present?
        5. Social relations, norm-following, reciprocation
        6. Pain and emotions

        CONSCIOUSNESS
        • Meaning. What does the word mean?
        • Metaphysics. What is it? Is it physical, spiritual, neurophysiological, functional, mysterious?
        • Epistemology. What reason is there to think an animal is conscious?  Can we know it?
        WHICH ANIMALS ARE CONSCIOUS?
        • Is this cat conscious?  
        • Do we "just know" through empathy?
        • If not, then what's our evidence?
        • What about an octopus
        • How about an insect
        • Next time, more about consciousness, then intelligence


        Tuesday, January 24, 2017

        Introduction

        SYLLABUS
        • You can find the syllabus at the tab above and at Canvas.  Please read it through carefully!  
        CELL PHONES & LAPTOPS
        • No cell phone usage during class. 
        • Laptops are discouraged. They can distract you and the people around you.
        COURSE TOPICS
        1. PRACTICES.  One of our tasks in this course will be to study and evaluate specific ways that we treat animals.  We'll be talking about eating animals, doing research on animals, and five more practices that presentation groups will be choosing and researching.  
        2. ETHICS.  Before we reflect on practices, we'll need to think about the moral status of animals. Do they count, morally, like people do?  Or less?  Or not at all?  We'll be studying historical and contemporary views on that topic.
        3. ANIMAL MINDS.  But before we study the moral status of animals, we'll need to study some aspects of their minds that have been thought to be relevant to their moral status. 
        4. LAW.  Once we've studied animal minds, ethics, and practices, we'll finish by discussing how animals are legally protected and whether they should be more strongly protected.
        WAYS OF KNOWING
        This is a "ways of knowing" class because we'll be studying animals from multiple disciplinary perspectives. When we study animal minds, our main guide will be Frans DeWaal, a primatologist.  When we study ethics, we'll read a wide variety of ethicists.  When we study the law, we'll read a number of legal scholars.    
        PRESENTATIONS
        Groups of five will be choosing presentation topics.  Suppose your topic is rodeos.  Your presentation will require:
        • Visiting a site in the community--e.g. going to a rodeo.
        • Doing research--e.g. you'll find out more about rodeos, using your own materials and readings I can suggest.
        • Doing a class presentation that includes a debate--e.g. you'll debate whether or not rodeos are ethical.
        • Today we'll talk about possible topics and next time you'll sign up for a topic. Next week I'll give you detailed instructions about preparing for and doing presentations.
        ANIMAL MINDS  & MORAL STATUS
        We're studying animal minds in depth because ethicists very often use claims about animal minds as a basis for making assertions about the moral status of animals.  Here are some claims about animal minds and some moral conclusions that have been drawn from them.
        click to enlarge
        We'll talk about the claims about moral minds for several weeks and then talk about the moral inferences.
        FRANS DE WAAL




        • First reading assignment
        • How can we know anything about animal minds?
        • What stance should animal psychologists adopt?
        • Use the reading questions (tab above)
        INSIDE THE ANIMAL MIND (DVD)
        • We'll watch program 2 (emotions), chapters 1-4.