- Paper due Dec. 9 -- make sure you use quotation and references properly.
- We'll have another quiz or two before the end of the semester--be prepared!
- New assignment for Friday: Donaldson and Kymlicka's response to our questions (HERE)
Genetic Engineering (GE) vs. Animal Breeding
- Breeding: Labrador retriever mates with poodle --> labradoodle (human intervention not needed)
- GE: spider genes added to goat genome --> goat-spider (first one made in lab, next generation via regular reproduction)
- How GE works: FDA Q&A
- Plants: ~90% of food in supermarket contains some GE plant ingredients
- Animals: GE animals have been created, but none have been approved as food yet
- cow-roo--cattle that produce less methane, so contribute less to global warming
- enviro-pig--pigs with less polluting excrement, so do less damage to environment
- livestock that don't suffer during life or slaughter
- Always wrong because unnatural? Always wrong because _________ ?
- Sometimes right, sometimes wrong: Rollins's Principle of Conservation of Welfare (TAER): GE permissible when next generation is no worse off than previous generation
Adam Shriver, "Knocking Out Pain in Livestock: Can Technology Succeed Where Morality has Stalled?"
- only minor improvements to factory farming and slaughter
- very few vegans (1-3%)
- further evidence (not in Shriver) impact of ethics classes: changing minds vs. changing behavior (Schwitzgebel)
- "genetically engineering livestock [without pain] will produce a world with better consequences" (utilitarian approach)
- "doing so will not introduce any new 'wrongs' into the world that will be offensive to other ethical theories" (besides utilitarianism)
- sensory component (localization and quality--sharp, dull, burning, etc.)
- affective component (the "hurt")
Evidence for separateness of sensory and affective components
- lesions to ACC leave human patients with sensory pain; lesions to S1&S2 leave them with affective pain
- morphine (which affects ACC more) leaves human patients with sensory pain
- behavior of rats after ACC ablation: they seem to lose affective pain but retain sensory pain (see below)
Can animals be created with no ACC, but with intact S1&S2?
- peptide P311 controls formation of ACC
- knockout mice without P311 behave like the rats after ACC ablation
- "P311 is likely play a similar role in all mammals" (p. 118)
- the mice can survive...in their cages
- knockout livestock would survive...in their limited environment
We will discuss objections. Make sure you have read this article carefully.